In the 5th century B.C., as related in the Old Testament’s Book of Esther, Mordecai, a Jew, refused to bow down to an adviser of King Ahasuerus named Haman. Incensed, Haman persuaded the king that Jews were essentially uncontrollable and should be executed en masse. Mordecai’s adopted daughter, Esther, boldly approached the king and suggested all parties meet at a banquet, where she gave an impassioned speech about the goodness of the Jews and Haman’s plot against them. When Haman stumbled near Esther as he pleaded for mercy, the king mistook this as an attack on Esther, and he reversed course by ordering Haman’s execution. The following day was declared a holiday named Purim.